Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) breeds across the northern latitudes (temperate, taiga and tundra) from eastern Canada and Greenland in the west to Alaska in the east. All populations migrate to Africa.
Just like Willow Warbler, and exactly opposite to Arctic Warbler and Red-flanked Bluetail, eastern populations of Northern Wheatear do not migrate to Africa along the shortest diagonal route. They instead migrate westwards towards West Asia before moving south into Africa! An incredibly long journey and one that is repeated when they go back!
Northern Wheatear has increased its breeding range far eastwards towards Alaska in a well documented range expansion. But it has continued to use its old migration routes in what may be a case of migration “memory”. Its breeding range may have also expanded towards Ladakh in recent years.